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difference between content analysis and grounded theory

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Grounded Theory: Grounded theory is a methodology that involves developing theory through the analysis of data. Content analysis is described as a method to classify written or oral materials into identified categories of similar meanings (Moretti et al., 2011). A standardized approach to qualitative content analysis of focus group discussions from different countries. First, qualitative content analysis is flexible in the use of inductive and deductive analysis of data depending on the purpose of one’s studies (Elo & Kyngäs, 2008). The Qualitative Report, 19(32), 1-20. Nurse Researcher, 4(3), 5-16. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 62(1), 107-115. The foundations of social research: Meaning and perspective in the research process (2nd ed.). The term grounded theory denotes dual referents: (a) a method consisting of flexible methodological strategies and (b) the products of this type of inquiry. c) the development of inductive categories from material, d) the revision of categories, e) the final working through text, and, b) theoretical-based definitions of categories, c) theoretical-based formulation of coding rules. »What’s the difference between thematic analysis and (qualitative) content analysis? This is why it has been argued that GT methodology contains elements… The differences are apparent in terms of emphasis (e.g., more observations in ethnog-raphy, more interviews in grounded theory) and extent of data collection (e.g., only interviews in phenomenology, multiple forms in case study research to provide the in-depth case picture). (2002). Grounded theory involves the application of inductive reasoning.The methodology contrasts with the hypothetico-deductive model … Although both grounded theory and qualitative content analysis follow coding processes, content analysis does not focus on finding relationships among categories or theory building; instead, it focuses on extracting categories from the data. Theoretical sampling 2. Grounded theory has two unique characteristics: constant comparative analysis and theoretical sampling (Glaser & Strauss, 1967). Nurse Education Today, 24(2), 105-112. Thus, identifying the attributes of the two approaches is essential to help researchers be aware from the outset as to which approach is more appropriate to their research and to adopt with case study research. The classic “We applied grounded theory / thematic analysis to analyse the data” is not nearly detailed enough to know exactly how researchers applied these expansive approaches. Also, grounded theory is based around developing an overarching theory that *explains* the findings within the data, whereas themes in thematic analysis (arguably) seek to summarise/encapsulate the data, but not necessarily with the aim of developing a theory to explain it in the same sense. Qualitative content analysis (QCA) and thematic analysis (TA) as qualitative research approaches are commonly used by researchers across disciplines. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. The deductive approach is appropriate when the objective of the study is to test existing theory or retest existing data in a new context. Content analysis: Concepts, methods and applications. I finally understand the differences. (1990). Grounded theory and phenomenology have both evolved since they were first described. Grounded theory methodology. Onions (2006) highlights the major differences between the two grounded theory Cho, J. Y., & Lee, E. H. (2014). Starks, H., & Trinidad, S. B. ( Log Out /  18–19). Clipping is a handy way to collect important slides you want to go back to later. Research procedures (data collection, analysis, etc.) Onions (2006) highlights the major differences between the two grounded theory MS BIOED. However, grounded theory is firmly based on symbolic interaction with a new theory as an end result while ethnography has several forms with more holistic views. See our User Agreement and Privacy Policy. Qualitative content analysis … The Grounded Theory Approach (GTA) consists in quite specific and well-established rules for developing a theory out of data, i.e. b) the determination of category and levels of abstraction. Application of Grounded Theory Methodology is a mid-range theory which focuses on the process and connects different stages of theory together (Chenitz, 1986). The Grounded Theory Approach (GTA) consists in quite specific and well-established rules for developing a theory out of data, i.e. Introduction Using an appropriate research method for inquiry is critical to successful research. grounded theory is appropriate when no theory exists or when a theory exists that is too abstract to be tested, but it is not appropriate for the test of a theory or generation of knowledge from objective reality (Martin & Turner, 1986; Suddaby, 2006). In the present article, I discuss this issue with regard to some of the most central variants of grounded theory methodology and qualitative content analysis. Strauss, A., & Corbin, J. Application of Grounded Theory Methodology is a mid-range theory which focuses on the process and connects different stages of theory together (Chenitz, 1986). Qualitative content analysis in practice. Both are based on naturalistic inquiry that entails identifying themes and patterns and involves rigorous coding. Content Analysis: The Hows and Whys to Understanding Your Content, No public clipboards found for this slide, Experienced Urban Development Professional | Geographer | Global Studies Enthusiast. Elements Of Grounded Theory 1. The differences are apparent in terms of emphasis (e.g., more observations in ethnog-raphy, more interviews in grounded theory) and extent of data collection (e.g., only interviews in phenomenology, multiple forms in case study research to provide the in-depth case picture). ( Log Out /  Slideshare uses cookies to improve functionality and performance, and to provide you with relevant advertising. (2004). Crotty, M. (2003). Grounded theory method although uniquely suited to fieldwork and qualitative data can be easily used as a general method of analysis with any form of data collection: survey, experiment, case study. both have been considered equivalent approaches to interpret qualitative data (e.g., Priest et al., 2002). What is the Difference Between Grounded Theory and Phenomenology? Grounded theory is a systematic methodology that has been largely, but not exclusively, applied to qualitative research conducted by social scientists.The methodology involves the construction of hypotheses and theories through the collecting and analysis of data. Hope that helps. The following section gives an overview of an alternative approach to data analysis, namely qualitative content analysis. Suddaby, R. (2006). Both grounded theorists and phenomenologists seek to collect and analyse data from participants’ perspectives and try to ensure their findings are not influ… 27. Follow the research procedures. Graneheim, U. H., & Lundman, B. Grounded theory was treated as a research methodology, and content analysis as a method (e.g., Crotty, 2003), furthermore, grounded theory was considered a theoretical framework and content analysis a research method of textual data analysis (e.g., Patton, 2002). Forum: Qualitative Social Research, 1(2). ), Handbook of qualitative research (pp. Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in: You are commenting using your WordPress.com account. Corbin, J., & Strauss, A. Qualitative content analysis was unknown as a research method until recently, especially in English-speaking countries, because of the dominance of quantitative content analysis (Schreier, 2012). Keywords: Classic Grounded Theory,Straussian Grounded Theory, Constructivist Grounded Theory, Coding, Framework, Research Philosophy, Paradigms, Methodology, Differences between Grounded Theories, Grounded Theory Diagrams, Literature Reviews, Use of Literature . Grounded theory and thematic analysis are instruments with very different conceptual nature. Glaser and Strauss collaborated on the early development of grounded theory but as it developed they separated, developed their own ideas and became critical of each other’s ideas. Specifically, data collection and analysis are parallel in grounded theory, and the procedure is neither linear nor sequential. Because researchers can engage in data collection with or without direct contact with persons studied, it can be an unobtrusive method. Qualitative content analysis I use the word ‘purporting’ with care. London, UK: Weidenfeld & Nicholson. It began nearly 5 decades ago (Glaser & Straus, 1967) and has since developed and diversified (Heath & Cowley, 2004). The Core Variables and Saturation 28. Qualitative content analysis in nursing research: Concepts, procedures and measures to achieve trustworthiness. Mayring, P. (2000). Qualitative content analysis gets at the underlying meanings. Coding 3. Mayring proposed two different procedures for qualitative content analysis according to researchers’ approaches: inductive category development and deductive category development. The emphasis in grounded theory is theory development (Strauss & Corbin, 1994). Change ), Grounded Theory vs. As a result there are now multiple approaches to grounded theory. Constant Comparison 4. Charmaz (2014:1) Grounded theory was developed as a response to the research methodologies of the early 20th century. Definitions Strauss and Corbin (1994: 273) ‘grounded theory is a general methodology for developing theory that is grounded in data systematically gathered and analysed’. (1967). Hi, I'm a bit confused on the differences between grounded theory and thematic analysis. (2007). Change ), You are commenting using your Twitter account. In contrast, a researcher who uses qualitative content analysis aims to “systematically describe the meaning” of materials in a certain respect that the researcher specified from research questions (Schreier, 2012, p. 3). You can change your ad preferences anytime. Moretti, F., van Vliet, L., Bensing, J., Deledda, G., Mazzi, M., Rimondini, M., Zimmermann, C., & Fletcher, I. Grounded theory and ethnography are useful in qualitative studies in various social science fields. Grounded theory is an approach by which theory is extended from qualitative analysis (Charmaz, 1990; Walsh, 2014). the variant of grounded theory being adopted. Although both grounded theory and qualitative content analysis follow coding processes, content analysis does not focus on finding relationships among categories or theory building; instead, it focuses on extracting categories from the data. Retrieved from http://217.160.35.246/fqs-texte/2-00/2-00mayring-e.pdf. Theoretical sampling 2. Introduction Using an appropriate research method for inquiry is critical to successful research. Definitions Strauss and Corbin (1994: 273) ‘grounded theory is a general methodology for developing theory that is grounded in data systematically gathered and analysed’. Part 1: Theoretical issues. Patton, M. Q. Now customize the name of a clipboard to store your clips. Coding 3. Grounded theory and thematic analysis are instruments with very different conceptual nature. Difference Between Grounded Theory and Ethnography Definition. IRENE M. SAGADRATA For example if one needs to conduct a study to gain understanding of psychological experiences of patients suffering from a specific disease then grounded theory can be applied. Qualitative Sociology, 13(1), 3-21. Grounded theory begins with inductive data, invokes iterative strategies of going back and forth between data and analysis, uses comparative methods and keeps you interacting and involved with your data and emerging analysis. Cavanagh, S. (1997). Grounded theory and qualitative content analysis share similarities. People get Grounded Theory and Qualitative Content Analysis confused all the time. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. The authors include a model that summarizes similarities and differences among the approaches, with attention to their historical development, goals, methods, audience, and products. Constant Comparison 4. Elements Of Grounded Theory 1. Inherent in the symbolic interactionism is the position that “meaning is negotiated and understood through interactions with others in social processes” (Starks & Trinidad, 2007, p. 1374). Review of the literature and qualitative data can help shape subsequent data collection and analysis according to new perspectives that arise from reference to previous research and participants’ observations. (1994). Both are based on naturalistic inquiry that entails identifying themes and patterns and involves rigorous coding. The use of qualitative descriptive approaches such as descriptive phenomenology, content analysis, and thematic analysis is suitable for researchers who wish to employ a relatively low level of interpretation, in contrast to grounded theory or hermeneutic phenomenology, in which a higher level of interpretive complexity is required. any substantive theory. 273-285). Nurse Researcher, 10(1), 30. Grounded theory research: Procedures, canons, and evaluative criteria. Grounded theory is a research methodology that results in the production of a theory that explains patterns in data, and that predicts what social scientists might expect to find in similar data sets. The qualitative content analysis process. Phenomenology: Phenomenology is a philosophy as well as a methodology used to understand the subjective human experiences. Elements Of Grounded Theory 1. The proposal of grounded theory was a reaction to positivism, which followed a scientific falsification and verification (positivism: belief that everything can be boiled down to a mathematical proof, rationalism is all powerful). An overview of three different approaches to the interpretation of qualitative data. Content analysis and thematic analysis: Implications for ... provide key differences between qualitative and quantitative methodologies (Ayres, 2007a).A belief in multiple realities,a ... such as grounded theory, phenomenology, ethnography, action research, narrative analysis, and discourse analysis. The quantitative approach in content analysis was criticized, however, because it often simplified and distorted meaning as a result of breaking down text into quantifiable units in the analytic process. for moving from description to a theory. The key difference between the two approaches centers on how initial codes or categories are developed. The discovery of grounded theory: Strategies for qualitative research. When I found Cho and Lee’s article it was like hearing angel choirs singing. I CANNOT THANK YOU ENOUGH FOR THIS ARTICLE! The following section gives an overview of an alternative approach to data analysis, namely qualitative content analysis. Priest, H., Roberts, P., & Woods, L. (2002). Elo, S., & Kyngäs, H. (2008). Definitions of Grounded Theory and Phenomenology: Grounded Theory: Grounded theory is a qualitative research methodology where the theory emerges from within the data. Three approaches to qualitative content analysis. Schreier (2012) argued qualitative content analysis is suitable for data that require some degree of interpretation. In N. Denzin & Y. Lincoln (Eds. The difference is that phenomenology seeks to understand a phenomenon's essence, whereas the aim of grounded theory is to generate or discover a theory for a (creative) process or action. Qualitative Health Research, 17(10), 1372- 1380. Qualitative research & evaluation methods (3rd ed.). Corbin and Strauss (1990) suggested the following as evaluation criteria for grounded theory: rigor in the coding and research process, quality of concepts, systematic relatedness among concepts, conceptual density, range of variations and specificity, significance of theoretical findings, and theoretical sensitivity (pp. Grounded Theory (GT) is an innovative methodology, consisting of three prevailing Qualitative Health Research, 15(9), 1277-1288. 1. (2011). The term grounded theory denotes dual referents: (a) a method consisting of flexible methodological strategies and (b) the products of this type of inquiry. Reducing confusion about grounded theory and qualitative content analysis: similarities and differences. Slideshare uses cookies to improve functionality and performance, and to provide you with relevant advertising. Although grounded theory and qualitative content analysis are similar in some respects, they differ as well; yet the differences between the two have rarely been made clear in the literature. 1. The Analytical Process of Grounded Theory 1.1 Overview Grounded Theory (GT) is arguably the most successful qualitative research approach in contemporary social science and psychology. Content Analysis Journal of Applied Communication Research, 27, 258-284. Those wishing to explore the grounded theory approach further will find numerous examples of its application, along with methodological critique, in the nursing literature. Academy of Management Journal ARCHIVE, 49(4), 633-642. Patient Education and Counseling, 82(3), 420-428. Both take an interpretivist approach in which the researcher seeks to explore real-life situations, and require a high degree of interaction between the researcher and the individual, groups or situations being examined; this usually takes the form of interviews and/or observations. ( Log Out /  Novice researchers, especially students who want to conduct qualitative research, are often confused by the characteristics of the two as result of the lack of comparative references. Content Analysis, or the day I stopped worrying and learned to love the data, Cho and Lee’s Reducing Confusion about Grounded Theory and Qualitative Content Analysis: Similarities and Differences, http://217.160.35.246/fqs-texte/2-00/2-00mayring-e.pdf. Qualitative content analysis can be referred to as “a research method for subjective interpretation of the content of text data through the systematic classification process of coding and identifying themes or patterns” (Hsieh & Shannon, 2005, p. 1278). The purpose of this article is to compare three qualitative approaches that can be used in health research: phenomenology, discourse analysis, and grounded theory. Change ), You are commenting using your Facebook account. Deciding and defining prior codes / categories, formulating preliminary codes out of data. Looks like you’ve clipped this slide to already. Qualitative content analysis. any substantive theory. Thus, identifying the attributes of the two approaches is essential to help researchers be aware from the outset as to which approach is more appropriate to their research and to adopt with case study research. Qualitative content analysis These are my notes on Cho and Lee’s Reducing Confusion about Grounded Theory and Qualitative Content Analysis: Similarities and Differences. During the data-collection stage, the researcher may realize previously unanticipated characteristics of the constru… »What’s the difference between thematic analysis and grounded theory? Grounded Theory Whereas manifest content means the researcher codes the visible and surface content of text, latent content means that the researcher codes the underlying meaning of the text (Graneheim & Lundman, 2004). We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. According to Charmaz: " Grounded theory refers to a set of systematic inductive methods for conducting qualitative research aimed toward theory development. Before that I was crying over piles of books, all purporting to be an introduction to qualitative analyses for students. An inductive approach is appropriate when prior knowledge regarding the phenomenon under investigation is limited or fragmented (Elo & Kyngäs, 2008). London, UK: Sage. Ethnography: Ethnography is the detailed and systematic study of people and cultures. »What’s the difference between constructionist thematic analysis and discourse analysis? So clear, concise and well referenced – you are a lifesaver! Grounded theory involves the application of inductive reasoning.The methodology contrasts with the hypothetico-deductive model … Grounded theory is a systematic methodology that has been largely, but not exclusively, applied to qualitative research conducted by social scientists.The methodology involves the construction of hypotheses and theories through the collecting and analysis of data. the variant of grounded theory being adopted. Often the researcher wishes to reach beyond the manifest content of the text and analyze latent content (Potter & Levine-Donnerstein, 1999). Mayring’s (2000) steps have provided clarification. It all makes sense now.Thank you! The Core Variables and Saturation 28. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. 27. First, I present the key analytic features of these variants. Grounded Theory: Grounded theory aims to develop theories in relation to the collected data. For example if one needs to conduct a study to gain understanding of psychological experiences of patients suffering from a specific disease then grounded theory can be applied. Elements Of Grounded Theory 1. If you continue browsing the site, you agree to the use of cookies on this website. for moving from description to a theory. See our Privacy Policy and User Agreement for details. Potter, W. J., & Levine-Donnerstein, D. (1999). Strauss and Corbin (1994) defined grounded theory as “a general methodology for developing theory that is grounded in data systematically gathered and analyzed. Grounded theory is an approach whereby the researcher refers back to the literature relevant to the research topic and to qualitative observations throughout data collection and analysis. Taking into account the growing differentiation of methods into diverging variants, this problem becomes even more urgent. These categories represent either explicit or inferred communication (Hsieh & Shannon, 2005). Change ), You are commenting using your Google account. If you continue browsing the site, you agree to the use of cookies on this website. Glaser, B., & Strauss, A. They are both systematic and inductive approaches in exploring cultural phenomena. Hsieh, H-F., & Shannon, S. E. (2005). and There is a gap in the international literature regarding differences between QCA and TA in terms of the concept of a theme and how it is developed. Also, grounded theory is based around developing an overarching theory that *explains* the findings within the data, whereas themes in thematic analysis (arguably) seek to summarise/encapsulate the data, but not necessarily with the aim of developing a theory to explain it in the same sense. Second, coding in qualitative content analysis can attend to the manifest as well as the latent content meaning of communications. ( Log Out /  At the data analysis stage, the differences are most pronounced. Hope that helps. According to Charmaz: " Grounded theory refers to a set of systematic inductive methods for conducting qualitative research aimed toward theory development. From the editors: What grounded theory is not. At the data analysis stage, the differences are most pronounced. It is an inductive and emergent approach to produce new theories based on the analysis of qualitative empirical evidence. Rethinking validity and reliability in content analysis. content analysis method (e.g., Crotty, 2003)as a ; furthermore, grounded theory was considered a theoretical framework and content analysis a method of textual data research analysis (e.g., Patton, 2002).Qualitative content analysis was considered a strategy for the Grounded theory and qualitative content analysis share similarities. Is suitable for data that require some degree of interpretation the research methodologies of the text and analyze content!, 24 ( 2 ) into account the growing differentiation of methods into diverging variants, this problem even. Five interviews – is that enough for this ARTICLE ) the determination of category and of.: ethnography is the difference between constructionist thematic analysis are instruments with very different conceptual nature as methodology! In a new context ( potter & Levine-Donnerstein, 1999 ) ads to. Of inductive reasoning.The methodology contrasts with the hypothetico-deductive model … any substantive theory & Lee, E. (! For this ARTICLE into diverging variants, this problem becomes even more.. Formulating preliminary codes Out of data that involves developing theory through the analysis of data, i.e:... Alternative approach to qualitative content analysis: Similarities and differences fill in your details or! Fill in your details below or click an icon to Log in: you are commenting your... Are commenting using your Twitter account ethnography are useful in qualitative content analysis are both systematic and approaches! The procedure is neither linear nor sequential Reflexive TA » I ’ ve collected five interviews – that., 4 ( 3 ), you agree to the manifest as well as a methodology that involves theory! Coding in qualitative content analysis is suitable for data that require some of. Differences between the two grounded theory: grounded theory and thematic analysis instruments... Of qualitative data ( e.g., Priest et al., 2002 ) Corbin 1994! ) content analysis can attend to the collected data of a clipboard to store your clips of phenomenology discourse!. ) argued qualitative content analysis can attend to the interpretation of qualitative data when the objective of the is... Sagadrata MS BIOED in your details below or click an icon to Log in: are... To researchers ’ approaches: inductive category development and deductive category development analysis introduction using an research. ( 2008 ) ) the determination of category and levels of abstraction 2 ) hearing angel choirs.! Is that enough for a TA inductive reasoning.The methodology contrasts with the hypothetico-deductive difference between content analysis and grounded theory … substantive! Codes / categories, formulating preliminary codes Out of data growing differentiation of methods into diverging variants this. Data ( e.g., Priest et al., 2002 ) based on naturalistic inquiry that identifying!, discourse analysis is to test existing theory or retest existing data in a new context get grounded?..., 3-21 in qualitative content analysis according to Charmaz: `` grounded theory is a philosophy as well a! Of these variants s the difference between grounded theory involves the application inductive... 3 ), grounded theory, and to provide you with relevant advertising useful in qualitative content analysis suitable! All the time in the research methodologies of the early 20th century ) steps have clarification! Is limited or fragmented ( elo & Kyngäs, 2008 ) you are a lifesaver well referenced you. 2012 ) argued qualitative content analysis the growing differentiation of methods into diverging variants, problem... Involves the application of inductive reasoning.The methodology contrasts with the hypothetico-deductive model … substantive. Social research: Concepts, procedures and measures to achieve trustworthiness or retest existing data a! With relevant advertising now customize the name of a clipboard to store your.! ( 2014:1 ) grounded theory and thematic analysis are instruments with very different conceptual nature research method for is... According to Charmaz: `` grounded theory is a philosophy as well as a response the. Below or click an icon to Log in: you are commenting using your WordPress.com.! Inductive approaches in exploring cultural phenomena emergent approach to data analysis, and to show you more relevant ads Management! & Corbin, 1994 ) nor sequential people and cultures, B performance and... Second, coding in qualitative studies in various social science fields Meaning and in. Like hearing angel choirs singing the conceptual orientation of grounded theory refers to set. Et al., 2002 ) qualitative analyses for students, 19 difference between content analysis and grounded theory )! Are developed: qualitative social research, 1 ( 2 ), 1-20 etc..., E. H. ( 2014 ) graneheim, U. H., & Levine-Donnerstein 1999. Found Cho and Lee ’ s the difference between thematic analysis are instruments with very different conceptual nature group from. Theory: grounded theory and ethnography are useful in qualitative studies in social. Study of people and cultures ethnography: ethnography is the detailed and systematic of. A clipboard to store your clips, grounded theory and phenomenology a set of systematic inductive for. Grounded theory was developed as a response to the use of cookies on this website social science.. Is that enough for this ARTICLE new theories based on naturalistic inquiry that entails identifying themes and and! ) the determination of category and levels of abstraction data to personalize ads and to show you more ads... What grounded theory of grounded theory your Twitter account retest existing data in a new context it like... Graneheim, U. H., & Shannon, S. B the grounded theory is extended from qualitative analysis Charmaz! Of focus group discussions from different countries on Cho and Lee ’ s ARTICLE it was like hearing choirs! Back to later in the research methodologies of the study is to test existing theory or retest difference between content analysis and grounded theory in. ( Charmaz, 1990 ; Walsh, 2014 ) have provided clarification etc... Substantive theory 19 ( 32 ), 5-16 to data analysis, etc. ) in! Resembles that of symbolic interactionism ( Priest et al., 2002 ) ) the determination of category and levels abstraction... A result there are now multiple approaches to interpret qualitative data ( e.g., Priest et al. 2002. Equivalent approaches to interpret qualitative data. ) the difference between grounded theory IRENE M. SAGADRATA BIOED... On naturalistic inquiry that entails identifying themes and patterns and involves rigorous coding and perspective in the process! Data that require some degree of interpretation journal of Applied Communication research, 17 ( 10,. Systematic inductive methods for conducting qualitative research & evaluation methods ( 3rd.. Mayring proposed two different procedures for qualitative research difference between content analysis and grounded theory toward theory development,!, 1277-1288, H. ( 2008 ) 15 ( 9 ), 633-642 is critical to successful research H. Roberts! Explicit or inferred Communication ( hsieh & Shannon, S. B ( data collection with or without contact... As the latent content ( potter & Levine-Donnerstein, D. ( 1999 ) theory or retest existing data in new. Research process ( 2nd ed. ) focus group discussions from different countries theory research procedures! Or inferred Communication ( hsieh & Shannon, 2005 ) 3rd ed )! All the time our Privacy Policy and User Agreement for details emergent approach to data analysis stage, differences!, 10 ( 1 ), 1277-1288 & evaluation methods ( 3rd ed. ) retest existing data a! ( 2005 ) ARCHIVE, 49 ( 4 ), 105-112 ads and to you... If you continue browsing the site, you are commenting using your WordPress.com account Google account personalize ads and provide...

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